Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-settings.php on line 512

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Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-settings.php on line 570

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Page::start_lvl() should be compatible with Walker::start_lvl(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1199

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Page::end_lvl() should be compatible with Walker::end_lvl(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1199

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Page::start_el() should be compatible with Walker::start_el(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1199

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Page::end_el() should be compatible with Walker::end_el(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1199

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_PageDropdown::start_el() should be compatible with Walker::start_el(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1244

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Category::start_lvl() should be compatible with Walker::start_lvl(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1391

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Category::end_lvl() should be compatible with Walker::end_lvl(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1391

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Category::start_el() should be compatible with Walker::start_el(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1391

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Category::end_el() should be compatible with Walker::end_el(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1391

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_CategoryDropdown::start_el() should be compatible with Walker::start_el(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/classes.php on line 1442

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class wpdb in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 306

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/cache.php on line 103

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class WP_Object_Cache in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/cache.php on line 431

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/query.php on line 61

Deprecated: Assigning the return value of new by reference is deprecated in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/theme.php on line 1109

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Comment::start_lvl() should be compatible with Walker::start_lvl(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/comment-template.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Comment::end_lvl() should be compatible with Walker::end_lvl(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/comment-template.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Comment::start_el() should be compatible with Walker::start_el(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/comment-template.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Declaration of Walker_Comment::end_el() should be compatible with Walker::end_el(&$output) in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/comment-template.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class WP_Dependencies in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/class.wp-dependencies.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class WP_Http in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/http.php on line 61

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2::init() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/functions.php on line 8

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2::include_all() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/k2.php on line 27

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2::include_all() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/k2.php on line 28

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method K2Options::init() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/plugin.php on line 339

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Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method K2SBM::init() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/plugin.php on line 339

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::pre_bootstrap() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::load_modules() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 200

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::module_scan() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 203

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::module_scan_dir() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebars() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 36

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 317

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::load_modules() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 264

Deprecated: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 650

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 66

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 369

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::register_sidebar_module_control() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 79

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::name_to_id() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/classes/sbm.php on line 430

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2SBM::is_active_module() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/app/includes/sbm.php on line 74

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method K2SBM::post_bootstrap() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/plugin.php on line 339

Strict Standards: Non-static method K2::replace_wp_scripts() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-content/themes/k2/header.php on line 6
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Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method K2Header::output_header_css() should not be called statically in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/plugin.php on line 339

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1003

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/thelette/public_html/wp-includes/kses.php on line 1002

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AI In Instruction - Try Automated Essay Scoring

AI In Training - Consider Computerized Essay Scoring

As computers intelligence is speedily developing, there are lots of potent tools that could help lecturers become additional efficient popping out nearly every week, it appears. One of many much more sci-fi sounding applications underneath examination is automatic laptop grading of prepared essays. Researchers seemingly are well on their way toward finding bots to instantly quality prepared essays. For stakeholders working with humongous amounts of essays these kinds of as MOOC providers or states that come with essays as element in their standardized tests, the thought of possessing the grading perform accomplished, even partly, by a pc is mesmerizing to say the the very least. The big dilemma is just how much of a poet a computer is able to turning into to be able to realize smaller but sizeable nuances the can suggest the real difference among a good essay and a good essay. Can it seize essentials of written conversation: reasoning, ethical stance, argumentation, clarity?

In the 12 months 1966 when computers even now crammed complete rooms, researcher Ellis Web page within the College of Connecticut took the primary methods in direction of automatic grading. Site was a real visionary of his technology. Pcs was a relatively new thing a the considered applying them with text input as an alternative to quantities have to have seemed particularly novel to Page?s peers. In addition to, computers have been mainly reserved for your most sophisticated duties achievable, and access to them was nevertheless hugely restricted. Utilizing pcs to quality essays wasn?t very reasonable. From either a simple or cost-effective standpoint. Currently having said that, the need for automatic pc grading is soaring. Thanks to large fees from every single essay having to become graded by two lecturers, standardized point out assessments using a created portion of the evaluation are getting to be significantly pricey. This value has led to lots of states ditching this important a part of assessment checks. To counteract this discouraging advancement, in 2012 the William and Flora Hewlett Basis sponsored a contest for automatic grading for getting factors likely inside the spot. A prize of 60.000 was awarded the solution that best could replicate grading from real teachers on many thousand of essay samples.

?We had read the claim the device algorithms are as good as human graders, but we preferred to produce a neutral and truthful system to evaluate the assorted claims from the vendors. It seems the statements are certainly not hoopla.?, suggests Barbara Chow, training plan director with the Hewlett Basis.

http://analysisessay.net/

Today quite a few standardized tests in reduced grades use computerized grading devices with fantastic final results. Children?s fate isn’t entirely in computer system arms nonetheless. Generally, robo-graders only replace a person of two essential graders in standardized assessments. In case the computerized grader has strongly divergent viewpoints, the essays are flagged and forwarded to a different human grader for even further assessment. This plan is there to guarantee good quality is assessment and is also with the similar time useful in producing auto-grader skills.

Development in computerized grading is also of excellent desire for MOOC-providers. One of many largest problems in the prevalence of on-line education and learning is personal assessment of essays. One trainer could likely present materials for 5.000 learners, but it?s unachievable for just a one instructor to judge every single learners do the job separately. Resolving this problem is really a huge stage in direction of disrupting the training systems that some say is damaged. Grading software has considerably improved over the past couple many years, and is also now advancing and being examined in a college stage. Among the list of major leaders in advancement is EdX, a MOOC company plus a combined initiative of Harvard and MIT towards increasing on-line schooling.

EdX president Anant Agarwal statements AI-grading has much more benefits than just releasing up useful time. The instant comments produced probable together with the new technological innovation contains a positive impact on understanding in addition. Currently, essay assessments usually takes days or even months to complete, but by way of fast feedback, college students have their work new in memory and will enhance weaker components promptly and much more powerful.

To start out the device understanding within the program, lecturers must enter graded essays into your process to give several illustrations of what’s superior and what is negative. The program receives ever more much better at its task as a lot more and a lot more essays are now being entered and will inevitably supply specific opinions almost instantly. As outlined by Agarwal, there is certainly however a lengthy strategy to go, nevertheless the good quality in grading is speedy approaching that of the human instructor. Growth of your EdX-system is speedily increasing as far more universities take part over the action. As of currently, eleven important Universities are contributing to the ongoing advancement from the grading software package. Professor Mark Shermis, Dean of college Instruction with the University of Houston is taken into account one of several world?s top experts in computerized grading. He supervised the Hewlett competitors back again in 2012 and was quite amazed by the effectiveness in the contributors. 154 distinct teams took portion during the level of competition and were being as opposed on in excess of sixteen.000 essays. The Output through the winning group was in 81% agreement to human raters. Shermis verdict was predominantly optimistic, and he suggests this technological innovation contains a confident position in long run educational options. Given that the levels of competition, analysis in automated grading has experienced superior progress. In 2016 two researchers at Stanford introduced a report in which they assert to have attained a coincident of 94.5% based on exactly the same dataset as within the Hewlett competition.

Besides, assessment variation among human graders isn’t anything that has been deeply scientifically explored and it is in excess of most likely to differ drastically amongst individuals.

Skepticism

Evidently, know-how of automated grading is to the rise and has arrive a protracted way with the initial very simple resources that primarily relied on counting terms, measuring sentences, phrase complexity and composition. How suppliers of computerized essays scoring units in fact appear up with their algorithms is concealed deep at the rear of mental home laws. On the other hand, while skeptic Les Perelman and former director of undergraduate producing at MIT has some of the solutions. He invested the last ten years inventing tips on how to trick and mock distinctive automatic grading software program and, has more or less began a full fledged war to fight using these systems.

Over the a long time he is now a master of knowledge the internal workings plus the weak details. Perelman has on quite a few events managed to crack the algorithms driving grading only to establish how effortless they may be tricked. His most current contraption is actually a application he created with support from MIT undergraduate learners termed the Babel Generator (consider it, it hilarious). This system can make a whole essay in below a next, based on a person to 3 search phrases. Not surprisingly, the essay makes absolutely no sense to go through considering that it is actually entire to your brim with just well-articulated nonsense.

The vital dilemma in information assessment is known as overfitting, i.e. utilizing a modest dataset to forecast a thing. The grading computer software should compare essays, recognize what areas are great and not so excellent then condense this all the way down to a quantity which constitutes the grade, which in its turn should be comparable that has a unique essay on the completely different subject. Appears challenging, does not it? That is for the reason that it is actually. Quite hard. But nevertheless, not unachievable. Google employs related practices when comparing what ensuing texts and pictures are more preferable to distinctive research conditions. The issue is just that Google employs thousands and thousands of information samples for his or her approximations. Only one faculty could, at finest, input a few thousand essays. This is like striving to resolve a 1000-piece puzzle with just 50 items. Certain, some items can conclude up inside the correct position but it is generally guess perform. Until there is certainly a humongous databases of millions and millions of essays, this problem will almost certainly be really hard to work close to.

The only plausible option to overfitting is specifying a particular established of guidelines to the computer to act upon to determine if a textual content can make sense or not, since pcs cannot go through. This answer has labored in several other apps. Proper now, auto-grading suppliers are throwing anything they received at arising using these principles, it?s just that it’s so challenging arising having a rule to make a decision the caliber of resourceful get the job done these as essays. Computers have a very tendency of resolving difficulties within the way they usually do: by counting.

In auto-grading, the quality predictors could, such as, be; sentence size, the number of words, amount of verbs, range of complex words and phrases and so forth. Do these guidelines make to get a wise evaluation? Not in accordance with Perelman no less than. He claims that the prediction principles are sometimes set in a very extremely rigid and constrained way which restrains the standard of these assessments. On other scenarios he observed illustrations of guidelines improperly utilized or maybe not used in the least, the program could one example is not determine no matter whether details were correct or phony. In a very posted and automatically graded essay, the task was to debate the primary factors why a university training is so costly. Perelman argued which the clarification lies within the greedy teacher?s assistants that has a income of 6 times that of a faculty president and regularly makes use of their complementary non-public jets for the south sea holiday vacation. To stop the analyzing eye of Perelman and his peers most vendors have limited utilization of their computer software while progress remains ongoing. Up to now, Perelman hasn?t gotten his hand within the most distinguished methods and admits that thus far he has only been able to fool a few devices. If we’re to believe Perelman?s statements, computerized grading of college amount essays even now includes a lengthy technique to go. But remember that by now right now, reduce grade essays is really getting graded by desktops previously. Granted, underneath meticulous supervision by people but nevertheless, technological development can transfer rapid. Looking at simply how much effort staying asserted in direction of perfecting automated grading scoring it is likely we’ll see a fast growth in a very not too distant future.

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